Configuration entries are Consul resources used to define datacenter-wide configuration
defaults for various aspects of the service mesh, or to create service specific
configurations. As of Consul 1.9, configuration entries can be created as Custom Resource Definitions (CRDs), and managed using
In this tutorial you will:
- Learn how to work with config entries as Custom Resource Definitions (CRDs)
- Download the latest helm chart
- Install or upgrade Consul (with Helm or Consul K8S CLI) to enable CRDs
- Deploy an application workload
- Configure a service intention
- Modify a service intention
- Delete a service intention
To complete this tutorial you will need:
- Access to a Kubernetes cluster (Minikube v1.10.1+, kind v0.8.1+, or cloud-based k8s)
- helm v3.2.1+ or Consul-K8S-CLI
Prior to Consul 1.9, when using configuration entries with Consul in Kubernetes,
an operator would either need to
exec into a running container, or configure
a host that could interact with the datacenter using a local Consul binary.
In versions older than 1.9, configuration entries have to be managed with the Consul CLI,
the HTTP API, or provided to agents during startup as configuration files.
As of Consul 1.9, most configuration entries can be managed as Kubernetes Custom
Resource Definitions (CRDs). You can now define most configuration entries as YAML,
and register them with Consul using the familiar
kubectl apply command.
The configuration entries currently available as CRDs for Consul on Kubernetes are:
proxy-defaults- controls proxy configuration
service-defaults- configures defaults for all the instances of a given service
service-resolver- matches service instances with a specific Connect upstream discovery requests
service-router- defines where to send layer 7 traffic based on the HTTP route
service-splitter- defines how to divide requests for a single HTTP route based on percentages
service-intentions- defines restrictions for specific service to service interactions
If you have not already done so, download the latest official consul-helm chart now.
$ helm repo add hashicorp https://helm.releases.hashicorp.com
"hashicorp" has been added to your repositories
To ensure you have version
0.40.0 of the Helm chart, search your local repo.
$ helm search repo hashicorp/consul
NAME CHART VERSION APP VERSION DESCRIPTION hashicorp/consul 0.40.0 1.11.2 Official HashiCorp Consul Chart
If you do not see that you have the correct version of the chart locally, try updating your Helm repo.
$ helm repo update Hang tight while we grab the latest from your chart repositories... ...Successfully got an update from the "hashicorp" chart repository
This tutorial comes with sample code you can use to test CRDs. From the command line, clone the GitHub repository that contains the configuration you will use with this tutorial.
$ git clone https://github.com/hashicorp/learn-consul-kubernetes.git
Next, change into the directory containing the repository you just cloned.
$ cd learn-consul-kubernetes/custom-resource-definitions
Now, checkout the tagged version verified for this tutorial.
$ git checkout tags/v0.0.8
CRDs can be enabled in a Consul on Kubernetes datacenter by adding the following top level stanza to the Helm chart configuration file, and then installing or upgrading the datacenter using the chart with the updated configuration file.
controller: enabled: true
No other changes to the Helm chart configuration is required.
This feature is only available using the official consul-helm chart versions 0.25 and higher.
You can use the
config.yaml included in the git repo to create a minimal, unsecured,
development datacenter for testing this tutorial. You can review this configuration
below. Note, that this configuration is not suitable for production use. See the Secure Consul and Registered Services on Kubernetes tutorial
for instructions on how to configure a production datacenter.
global: name: consul datacenter: dc1 server: # use 1 server replicas: 1 connectInject: enabled: true # inject an envoy sidecar into every new pod, # except for those with annotations that prevent injection default: true # enable CRDs controller: enabled: true
You can now deploy a complete Consul datacenter in your Kubernetes cluster using the official Consul Helm chart or the Consul K8S CLI.
$ helm repo add hashicorp https://helm.releases.hashicorp.com "hashicorp" has been added to your repositories
$ helm install consul hashicorp/consul --values config.yaml --create-namespace --namespace consul --version "0.43.0"
You can review the official Helm chart values to learn more about the default settings.
Now that you have a datacenter with CRDs enabled, you will deploy an
demo application to test the features. Deploy the demo application using the
kubectl apply command.
$ kubectl apply -f hashicups service/frontend created serviceaccount/frontend created configmap/nginx-configmap created deployment.apps/frontend created service/postgres created serviceaccount/postgres created deployment.apps/postgres created servicedefaults.consul.hashicorp.com/postgres created service/product-api created serviceaccount/product-api created configmap/db-configmap created deployment.apps/product-api created service/public-api created serviceaccount/public-api created deployment.apps/public-api created
HashiCups may take a minute or more to deploy and start. Run the command
kubectl get pods --all-namespaces to verify all resources were successfully created.
$ kubectl get pods --all-namespaces NAMESPACE NAME READY STATUS RESTARTS AGE consul consul-client-nm6sf 1/1 Running 0 109s consul consul-connect-injector-58579fbbc6-96zh6 1/1 Running 0 109s consul consul-connect-injector-58579fbbc6-9kzm4 1/1 Running 0 109s consul consul-controller-559465fd96-nlcvg 1/1 Running 0 109s consul consul-server-0 1/1 Running 0 109s consul consul-webhook-cert-manager-7cf6df6c4f-qrdcj 1/1 Running 0 109s default frontend-cd47fc6bf-dclqd 2/2 Running 0 56s default postgres-f6f5ff9d5-8b7zr 2/2 Running 0 55s default product-api-78687f5ddc-rlz4g 2/2 Running 0 55s default public-api-796c9fc45-htctc 2/2 Running 0 55s ...
You can test the application by viewing the user interface. Do this by forwarding the frontend deployment's port 80 to your development host.
$ kubectl port-forward deploy/frontend 8081:80 Forwarding from 127.0.0.1:8081 -> 80 Forwarding from [::1]:8081 -> 80
Since the port forwarding process is running in the foreground, open a new terminal window, and navigate to the same directory to complete the rest of the tutorial.
http://localhost:8081 in a browser window.
You should observe the following screen.
Also, new as of Consul 1.9, is the ability to define permissions based on application-layer (i.e. layer 7) request attributes such as the HTTP method, path, or the presence/absence of a header.
To create the service intention for this tutorial, you first need to define the protocols for the frontend and public-api services as HTTP because application aware intentions can only operate on HTTP services. To do so, you need to create ServiceDefaults config entries for the frontend and public-api services:
apiVersion: consul.hashicorp.com/v1alpha1 kind: ServiceDefaults metadata: name: frontend spec: protocol: 'http' --- apiVersion: consul.hashicorp.com/v1alpha1 kind: ServiceDefaults metadata: name: public-api spec: protocol: 'http'
Now you will define a ServiceIntentions config entry that manages the traffic between the frontend and public-api services. ServiceIntentions can have only a single destination, but can have multiple sources, and each source can have its own permissions specified. For example, this configuration denies all traffic from the frontend service to the health route. The health route is only for internal use and could be abused by external users, so traffic from the frontend service to this exact path is denied.
- action: deny http: pathExact: "/health"
Next, the permissions for the primary allow action are specified. In the HashiCups
application, it is required that the client passes an
Authorization header. Also,
the application only allows the GET, PUT, POST, and DELETE HTTP methods.
- action: allow http: pathPrefix: '/' methods: - GET - PUT - POST - DELETE header: - name: 'Authorization' present: true
Finally, a catch-all deny action is specified. In this particular datacenter, there is no default deny policy defined, so you must define a deny action for this specific destination service.
- action: deny http: pathPrefix: '/'
By placing this at the end of the list, any traffic that doesn't match either of the previous actions will trigger the action, and be denied.
Putting it all together, your manifest should resemble the following:
# Application aware intentions can only be applied to services that use the HTTP protocol # so you must first define service default config entries for the targeted # services. apiVersion: consul.hashicorp.com/v1alpha1 kind: ServiceDefaults metadata: name: frontend spec: protocol: 'http' --- apiVersion: consul.hashicorp.com/v1alpha1 kind: ServiceDefaults metadata: name: public-api spec: protocol: 'http' --- apiVersion: consul.hashicorp.com/v1alpha1 kind: ServiceIntentions metadata: name: public-api spec: # Name of the destination service affected by this ServiceIntentions entry destination: name: public-api # The set of traffic sources affected by this ServiceIntentions entry sources: # The first affected traffic source-maps to service name of inbound traffic source - name: frontend # The set of permissions to apply when frontend is the traffic source # The first permission to match in the list is terminal and stops further evaluation. permissions: # Add this to always deny traffic from the frontend service to /health route - action: deny http: pathExact: '/health' # This permission now defines the conditions that should be allowed # Allow traffic to all paths for the GET, PUT, POST, DELETE verbs as long as an # Authorization header is present - action: allow http: pathPrefix: '/' methods: - GET - PUT - POST - DELETE header: - name: 'Authorization' present: true # Define a deny intention for all other traffic - action: deny http: pathPrefix: '/'
kubectl along with the file named
service-intentions.yaml in the repository
you downloaded earlier to register the service intention resource with Kubernetes.
$ kubectl apply -f service-intentions.yaml servicedefaults.consul.hashicorp.com/frontend created servicedefaults.consul.hashicorp.com/public-api created serviceintentions.consul.hashicorp.com/public-api created
Now you can interact with the service intention using
kubectl just like you can
any other kube-native resource. For example, you can get a list of all service
intentions with this command:
$ kubectl get serviceintentions NAME SYNCED public-api True
You can also inspect details about the service intention using
kubectl describe like so:
$ kubectl describe serviceintentions/public-api Name: public-api Namespace: default Labels: <none> Annotations: API Version: consul.hashicorp.com/v1alpha1 Kind: ServiceIntentions ...OMITTED... Spec: Destination: Name: public-api Sources: Name: frontend Permissions: Action: deny Http: Path Exact: /health Action: allow Http: Header: Name: Authorization Present: true Methods: GET PUT POST DELETE Path Prefix: / Status: Conditions: Last Transition Time: 2020-10-08T15:13:15Z Status: True Type: Synced Events: <none>
This configuration should allow traffic, because the frontend service passes
the required header and uses the GET HTTP method. Revisit the application in
a browser tab at
http://localhost:8081, and verify you can still visit the web page.
Next, modify the service intention you created a moment ago.
$ sed -i '' 's/Authorization/api-token/g' service-intentions.yaml
This script updates the service intention. It changes the name of the required header to a value the application does not provide. Review the file and notice the "allow" action has been altered. The header key "Authorization" has been changed to "api-token".
header: - name: 'api-token' present: true
kubectl apply to apply the modified configuration.
$ kubectl apply -f service-intentions.yaml servicedefaults.consul.hashicorp.com/frontend unchanged servicedefaults.consul.hashicorp.com/public-api unchanged serviceintentions.consul.hashicorp.com/public-api configured
Now, navigate to
http://localhost:8081 in a browser window. You should observe that you are no longer able to successfully visit the page. If you inspect the network call in the browser's developer tools, you should observe that the request was denied with the following error message:
RBAC: access denied
To access the Consul UI, forward the
consul-server-0 pod's port
8500 to the
development host, so that you can access the Consul UI in a browser.
$ kubectl port-forward consul-server-0 --namespace consul 8500:8500 Forwarding from 127.0.0.1:8500 -> 8500 Forwarding from [::1]:8500 -> 8500
http://localhost:8500 in a new browser tab. Click on "Intentions" in the left navigation pane, and you will observe a list of intentions. The screen
will have one entry as illustrated in this screenshot.
Notice there is a badge next to the
frontend entry indicating that the service is
App Aware. Also, notice that there is a badge that says
Managed by CRDs. Click anywhere on the
frontend entry, and you will be redirected to a page that contains the service intentions configuration details.
kubectl delete to remove the service intention.
$ kubectl delete -f service-intentions.yaml servicedefaults.consul.hashicorp.com "frontend" deleted servicedefaults.consul.hashicorp.com "public-api" deleted serviceintentions.consul.hashicorp.com "public-api" deleted
If you navigate back to the "Intentions" screen in the Consul UI, you will see that the list is now empty.
http://localhost:8081 in a browser window. You should once again be able to visit the page.
In this tutorial you:
- Learned how to work with config entries as Custom Resource Definitions (CRDs)
- Downloaded the latest helm chart
- Installed/upgraded a cluster to enable Consul CRDs
- Deployed an application workload
- Configured a service intention
- Modified a service intention
- Deleted a service intention
To learn more about how to manage Consul config entries using Consul on Kubernetes visit the documentation.
To learn more about securing your service mesh, check out our Securing Agents and Registered Services tutorial.