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Vagrant comes with support out of the box for Hyper-V, a native hypervisor written by Microsoft. Hyper-V is available by default for almost all Windows 8.1 and later installs.
The Hyper-V provider is compatible with Windows 8.1 and later only. Prior versions of Hyper-V do not include the necessary APIs for Vagrant to work.
Hyper-V must be enabled prior to using the provider. Most Windows installations will not have Hyper-V enabled by default. Hyper-V is available by default for almost all Windows Enterprise, Professional, or Education 8.1 and later installs. To enable Hyper-V, go to "Programs and Features", click on "Turn Windows features on or off" and check the box next to "Hyper-V". Or install via PowerShell with:
Enable-WindowsOptionalFeature -Online -FeatureName Microsoft-Hyper-V -All
See official documentation here.
Warning: Enabling Hyper-V will cause VirtualBox, VMware, and any other virtualization technology to no longer work. See this blog post for an easy way to create a boot entry to boot Windows without Hyper-V enabled, if there will be times you will need other hypervisors.